Students use a base-10 context to represent the place value of two-digit and three-digit numbers up to 1,000. Students solve addition and subtraction problems with two-digit and three-digit numbers, developing computation strategies that are built on adding and subtracting multiples of 10 and finding combinations that add to 100. Students investigate the properties of multiplication and division, including the inverse relationship between these two operations, and develop strategies for solving multiplication and division problems. Students determine, describe and compare sets of multiples, noticing their characteristics and relationships, and use these to investigate how multiplication works. They also solve division problems that involve sharing and grouping. Students use a variety of contexts to understand, represent and combine fractions. They also gain experience with common fraction equivalencies. Students are introduced to decimal fractions using the context of money and gain familiarity with fraction and decimal equivalents.
Students construct, read and compare line graphs that show a relationship between two variables in situations of change over time, and use tables to represent how one variable changes in relation to another. Students collect, represent, describe and interpret data. Measurement work includes linear measurement, perimeter, area, angle measurement, volume and temperature. Students use both U.S. standard units and metric units. They identify the amount of 2D space a given shape covers as its area, and learn that area is measured in square units. Students study the attributes of 2D and 3D shapes, and how these attributes determine their classification. Students also describe attributes of common geometric solids, such as how many edges and faces a solid shape has, or how a pyramid has triangular faces that come to a point.